Instruction for Authors

1. Manuscript submission

 Manuscripts must be uploaded online or submitted through E-mail or All accepted and published manuscripts become the property of the publisher.

 2. Preparation of a Research Article

2.1 Manuscript

 All manuscript must be typed using MS-WORD Times New Roman font 12 points, single spaced with margins of 3cm all around. The following point should be adhered to in the preparation of the manuscript: Title, authors, and affiliation: the manuscript should have the cover page that contains a clear and concise title; the name and institutional affiliation of author(s); and the complete mailing address and e-mail address of the person to whom all correspondences and proof should be sent. The next page of the paper should start with the title followed by the Abstract.

 Abstract: An abstract should provide a brief summary of the research problem, methods and materials used, major findings and conclusions drawn from the work. Abstract should be concise and should not be about 200-300 words. References should not be cited in the Abstract. Abstract is not necessary for technical notes.

Keywords: Important keywords, to be used for online search and retrieval, as well as indexing must be included just after the abstract.

 Introduction: The introduction should explain the purpose of the study cite relevant work and describe the objectives.

 Body: The body presents the detail of the study. It may be broken down into several sections, which should be identified with descriptive headings that are not numbered. Appropriate figures and tables may be used to support the discussion. Example of headings is: Theory, Experimental Work, Result and Discussion

Conclusion and recommendation: Conclusion should be brief, pointing out the significance of the work, its limitation and advantages, application of the result and recommendations.

 Acknowledgment: Acknowledge any support to the work.

 Nomenclature: Should list all the symbols used in alphabetical order, giving definition, and units in metric system. Greek letters, subscript, and superscript should be included.

 References: Use surname of author and year of publication Mashaka (2006) or (Mashaka, 2006). Different references cited together should be in date order, for example: (Mulungu, 2017; Mwinyiwiwa and Shayo, 2015; Sechambo, 2005). The abbreviation “et al.”, should be used in the text when there are more than two co-authors of cited paper, for example: Khumalo et al. (2018) or (Khumalo et al., 2018) system. Reference listing at the end of the manuscript should be in alphabetical order and in the following format.

 Journal articles: Kisamo J.D. and Kitumbi E.A. (1998). Thin layer Drying of Dried Cassava Roots, Uhandisi Journal, 22(1): 13-25.

Kayima J.K., Mayo A.W. and Nobert J.K. (2018). Hydrology and Hydraulics of the Lubigi Wetland in Uganda, Tanz. J. Engrg. Technol.,  37(1): 1-18.

 Book: Fletcher C.J. (1991). Computation Techniques for Fluid Dynamics, 3rd ed., 1: 20-120, Springer- Verlang, New York.

 Conference proceedings: Kandlikar S.G. (1997). Boiling Heat Transfer with Binary Mixtures, Proc. 32nd National Heat Transfer Conference Baltmore, 342: 19- 26.

 If a reference has been obtained from the internet the address should be given. For example:

Els Z. (2011). Data Availability and Requirements for Flood Hazard Mapping in South Africa, Stellenbosch University. Available online at Retrieved on 9th June 2018.

All names authors must be shown in the reference list regardless of the number of authors that has contributed to the articles.

2.2 Figures

All figures carry consecutive Arabic numbers, with descriptive caption, and must be referred to in the text. Keep figures separate from the text, but indicate an approximate position for each in the margin. Authors who present any Figure(s) into their manuscript(s) that are not originally theirs; they must credit the original source(s) or author(s).

 Preparation: Figures submitted must be of high quality for direct reproduction. Line drawings should be prepared in black (India) ink on white paper, with legend included. Alternatively, good sharp photo-prints are acceptable. Photographs intended for halftone reproduction must be good glossy original prints, of maximum contrast. Clearly label each figure with author's name and figure number. Figure titles must be placed at the bottom of the Figure in bold. For example, Figure 1: Dar es Salaam City Urbanization trend, 1975-2002 (Source: Abebe, 2011).


 Size: the preferred width of submitted line drawings is 18 to 20 cm with capital lettering 4mm high, to accommodate reduction to single-column width.

 2.3 Equations and Formulate

Mathematical: All symbols in equation must be clear. Identify unconventional or ambiguous symbols in the margin when they first appear. Underline vectors with a wavy line.

 Chemical: Supply reproducible artwork for chemical equation. Long reaction sequences should be treated like figures.

 2.4 Tables

Number tables consecutively with roman numerals, and give each a clear descriptive caption at the top. Authors that present Table(s) into their manuscript(s) that are not originally theirs; they must credit the original source(s) or author(s).

Table 1: Sample table, topical values of beta coefficients


Value at 200 K

Value at 300 K

Value at 600 K









 2.5 Footnotes

A footnote may include the designation of corresponding author of the paper, current address information for an author (if different from that shown in the affiliation. Footnotes should be indicated in the text by the following symbols; (*, +, ++, $, //, #). Type footnotes to a table directly beneath the table.

 3. Format for a Review Paper

 The structure of the Review article is similar to that of Review article, but the structure of the body (subtopics being addressed) is different. While the Research article contains Methodology (Experimental Work), Result and Discussion, the structure of Review article may vary based on the review questions being addressed. For example, if the review paper is evaluating four different techniques used for reduction of pathogens in wastewater, the body of the article may be divided into four sections, each discussing one of the methods. In these sections, the research methods are described, results are compared and implications of using each technique are discussed. The conclusions should be brief restating the rationale and objectives for your review and then discussing the conclusions drawn from the review. The authors should also discuss the implications of their review findings and propose recommendations for future research in the addressed topic.

 3. Format for a Technical Note

 The format of Technical note is similar to Research article, but must be short in length; not exceeding 10 pages in length, A4 size, single spacing, and Times New Roman font 12 points including Figures and Tables.